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Why That Big Meal You Just Ate Made You Hungry

http://www.wsj.com/news/articles/SB123966898930315491?mg=reno64-wsj&url=http%3A%2F%2Fonline.wsj.com%2Farticle%2FSB123966898930315491.html

Why That Big Meal You Just Ate Made You Hungry

By MELINDA BECK
Updated April 14, 2009 12:01 a.m. ET
Every few months, a new study purports to prove that a calorie is a calorie is a calorie, and that the only way to lose weight is to burn more than you take in.

But veteran dieters know something that some researchers apparently don’t: Certain foods seem to fuel the appetite like pouring gasoline on a fire. Some people find that once they start eating bread, cookies, chocolate, potato chips — or leftover Easter candy — they lose all sense of fullness and find it difficult to stop.

That’s the concept behind “The Skinny,” a new book by Louis J. Aronne, longtime director of the Comprehensive Weight Loss Program at NewYork Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center. He makes the best case yet why what you eat and when you eat it can make a big difference in appetite, satiety and how much willpower it takes to cut down. “It’s true that a calorie is a calorie,” Dr. Aronne says. “But what that doesn’t take into account is how some calories affect what people eat later on.”

APPETITE STOKERS

Some foods make it harder to stop eating:

Bread
Sweets
Juice
Pasta
Wine or beer before dinner
Artificial sweeteners
*Source: “The Skinny” by Louis J. Aronne

DISCUSS

Have you found ways to cut your appetite? Join the discussion at Journal Community.
After 23 years of treating patients — some of it espousing liquid diets — Dr. Aronne has concluded that refined carbohydrates and foods with high sugar and fat content promote what he calls “fullness resistance.” They interfere with the complex hormonal messages the body usually sends to the brain to signal that it’s time to stop eating. People feel hungrier instead.

This happens in part because refined carbohydrates raise blood-sugar levels, setting up an insulin surge that drives blood sugar down again, causing rebound hunger. That insulin spike also interferes with leptin, the hormone secreted by fat cells that should tell the body to stop eating. Obese people have loads of leptin, but it either doesn’t get to the brain, or the brain becomes resistant to it. “This is not a failure of willpower, it’s a physical mechanism,” Dr. Aronne writes. The body also becomes resistant to insulin, setting the stage for diabetes.

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Other researchers have described similar phenomena. An article in this month’s Medical Hypothesis argues that for some people, refined foods with high sugar and carbohydrate content can be just as addictive as tobacco and alcohol.

Eating foods high in protein, vegetables, fiber and water have the opposite effect, Dr. Aronne says. His plan recommends revising what you eat, one meal at a time, to restore your sense of fullness:

Breakfast: Loading up on lean protein — ideally from egg whites or a protein shake — in the morning reduces hunger all day long. Eating muffins, bread, sweetened cereal and juice does the opposite. A study of 30 overweight women at Saint Louis University School of Medicine found that those who ate eggs for breakfast consumed 140 fewer calories at lunch, and ate less for the next 36 hours, compared with women who ate bagels in the morning.

Some people argue that they aren’t hungry in the morning, but Dr. Aronne notes that ghrelin, the hormone that typically signals hunger, adjusts to habitual meal patterns. After a few days of eating breakfast, you should find that you are hungry in the morning, and are eating less the night before, he writes.

Lunch: Some dieters try to cut calories by skipping this meal. But going more than five hours without food causes hunger hormones to rise and fullness hormones to drop, and sends more of the calories consumed at dinner straight to fat cells. Dr. Aronne recommends starting lunch with a salad — at least two cups of lettuce — then more vegetables, and then lean protein. Skip the cheese, croutons, bacon and creamy dressings, he advises. Using vinegar alone will cut your appetite and slow the rise in blood sugar.

Dinner: The end of the day is fraught with temptation. Obese people consume significantly more calories at dinner than slimmer people. Here, too, load up first on salads, clear soups, or high-protein appetizers like shrimp cocktail, then have a lean protein main course. Unlike some other diet plans, Dr. Aronne’s program allows a half-cup of grains or a small dessert at the end of the meal, but only if you’re still hungry.

Eating bread before dinner makes people lose their sense of fullness and eat more, Dr. Aronne warns. Alcohol makes it worse by lowering your resistance and promoting fat storage.

Snacks: Like many other weight-loss experts, Dr. Aronne believes that midmorning and midafternoon snacks can act as mini appetite suppressants, preventing blood sugar from dropping too low. But the same principles apply: high-sugar, high-starch, high-fat snacks — including those little 100-calorie cookie packs — start a vicious cycle of more cravings, whereas fruit, nuts, vegetables and clear soups can halt them.

Beverages: It should go without saying that juice and sweet soda can add hundreds of extra calories a day. A few studies have shown that even artificially sweetened beverages can prompt people to crave real sweets during the day. Cut back on all sources of liquid calories, Dr. Aronne advises; stick with water.

To be sure, if you eat as Dr. Aronne suggests, you’ll consume fewer calories overall. The point is, eating protein early in the day may make it much easier to cut down. “It definitely does make a difference,” says Ned Sadaka, a New York investment manager who consulted Dr. Aronne to drop 30 pounds that had crept up on him in recent years. He’s lost 21 pounds and 5 inches off his waist since January.

Not everyone agrees that consuming more protein cuts appetite. Harvard School of Public Health’s Frank Sacks led a study recently published in the New England Journal of Medicine that compared 811 overweight adults on four diets with varying levels of protein, fat and carbohydrate. “We found absolutely no difference in their satiety and hunger levels,” Dr. Sacks says. All the groups lost similar amounts of weight.

Other weight-loss experts say that’s not surprising, since there were only modest differences in their fat, protein and carbohydrate intakes, and many participants didn’t stick to their plans.

Eric Westman, director of the Lifestyle Medical Clinic at Duke University Medical Center, who espouses the same kind of low-carb plan that Robert Atkins made famous, says in his experience, “There is almost complete appetite suppression when you eat protein.”

The debate will doubtless continue — weight loss is an extremely complex area, and not everyone’s metabolism is the same. Dr. Aronne suggests trying his plan yourself: “Have 200 calories of egg white omelet or protein shake for breakfast, and then another day have 200 calories of juice and look at your hunger, hour after hour.” Sometimes being a clinical trial of one is the best way to do your own research.


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The Different Type of Hunger – PaleoHacks

http://blog.paleohacks.com/the-different-types-of-hunger/

The Different Types of Hunger

One major topic on the PaleoHacks site is about hunger and identifying the different types of hunger: “mind hunger,” “gurgling sensations,” “hunger pains,” “body wants fuel,” “starvation mode,” “and hypoglycaemic hunger.” Here are some of the most popular types of hunger listed: hypoglycemia, empty stomach, and compulsion to eat.

So what exactly is hunger, anyway, and why do we experience it? Are there more types than those listed here?

Hunger

Hunger is the feeling you get when your body requires food. Appetite (or mind hunger), on the other hand, is the feeling of wanting to eat even when you are not hungry.

The sensation of hunger generally makes itself felt within a few hours of eating and most people find it unpleasant. Different people can experience hunger at different times according to their eating habits.

Biological Mechanisms of Hunger

Hormones

The hormones ghrelin and leptin fluctuate within your body to convince you to eat. When you eat, leptin is released and signals to your brain that you are full, or at least reduces your motivation to continue eating. After a few hours without food, those leptin levels drop and ghrelin is released, which brings back those feelings of hunger.

Other hormones like cholecystokinin (CKK) and insulin are released when you eat. These work to reduce hunger signals. Epinephrin and glucagon rise when you don’t eat and work to stimulate hunger.

Just before a meal, your glucose levels drop and your insulin rises.

Neural Signals from the Gastrointestinal Tract

Vagal nerve fibers can transmit signals between the GI tract and your brain. When you eat and your stomach is stretched, those stretch receptors tell your brain you are full and your hunger is reduced.

Nutrient Signals

Several nutrients send signals to your brain to indicate you are not hungry. These may include elevated amino acids, rising glucose levels, and fatty acids in the bloodstream.

Physical Sensations of Hunger

The different types of hunger may cause different sensations. When your stomach is empty, you may experience “growling” sensations, or minor cramping. You may have increased salivation or even “tight throat” feeling. This sensation doesn’t usually last long, about an hour, and then it will go away.

Appetite, or the desire to eat even when you’re not necessarily hungry, is all in your mind. This pesky issue can cause some problems with some people who either can’t recognize true hunger sensations, or choose to ignore them for the sake of eating that one last donut or cookie.

Hypoglycemic Hunger

When your body’s main fuel source is glucose, and you don’t eat enough carbs to produce glucose, your body might experience hypogylycemia. This is the condition where you have abnormally low levels of blood sugar.

This type of hunger is rare in Paleo eaters. Sure, when you first switch to a Paleo lifestyle after eating a lifetime of the Standard American Diet high in processed junk and sugar, you will probably have a few days or even a couple weeks where you will experience uneven energy and intense sugar cravings. You might experience anxiety or lightheadedness, the jitters, the shakes, brain fog, difficulty concentrating, extreme hunger, and energy crashes after eating and in the late afternoon.

The good news is, our bodies can make energy from carbs and from fat. If you have moved from a high-carb, low-fat diet to a lower- to moderate-carb, high protein, high fat diet, you will probably experience hypoglycemia for the first few days or week as your body adjusts. After that, your body will become accustomed to using a combination of fat and carbs (or just fat, if you follow a keto diet) for energy.

To make sure your body can produce energy from fat in an optimal manner, Chris Kresser suggests you ensure your nutrient levels are high, particularly ones responsible for this process, like carnitine and riboflavin.

Carnitine helps to move fatty acids into the mitochondria. If carnitine levels are low, fatty acids won’t be moved efficiently and your energy levels will drop. Genetic polymorphisms, a diet low in legumes or protein (source of lysine), or digestive impairment can all lead to a deficiency in carnitine.

Riboflavin is a main component of burning those fatty acids as fuel inside the mitochondria. Foods high in riboflavin are meat, green beans, asparagus, bananas, dairy products, fish, eggs, chard, okra, and persimmons. Things like dysbiosis or intestinal inflammation can affect your body’s ability to absorb riboflavin. Signs of a riboflavin deficiency include mouth ulcers, inflammation of the tongue and mouth, cracks at the corner of the mouth, and cracked and red lips.

Other nutrients that play a role in blood sugar regulation and energy production are chromium, biotin, magnesium, CoQ10, and choline.

Improve Your Body’s Fat-Burning Capacity

If you suspect your body is having a hard time metabolizing fat and you have issues with hypoglycemia, you might want to consider boosting your fat-burning nutrients as mentioned above, and improving your absorption of amino acids. Address any digestive issues you might have, and replace stomach enzymes and acids if they are low.

To regulate your blood sugar, experiment. Keep your carbs to fewer than 75 grams a day, eat more frequently (like every two to three hours), eat your breakfast with lots of protein within 30 minutes of waking up, eat a snack with fat and protein before you go to bed, and keep an eye on how you feel. If you need more carbs, then up your intake. Intermittent fasting may also be helpful.

Getting through that first adjustment period may be hard, but after that, you shouldn’t experience hypoglycemic reactions at all.

Water Hunger

Most people don’t realize it, but thirst often manifests as hunger. If you choose to eat when you feel this sensation but don’t drink, your body will continue to feel “hungry” even after you are past being satiated with food.

Practically every process in your body requires water, so ensure you are properly hydrated. Have some water every hour; different people have different water requirements, but generally, around one cup of water per hour should be sufficient. If it’s a very hot day, or you are hard at work doing something strenuous, are breastfeeding, or are on certain medications, you may need more. When you feel hungry next time, drink some water and see if that helps the sensation.

Head over to the PaleoHacks message boards to contribute to the topic of “Types of Hunger.”

avatar
PaleoHacks Team

PaleoHacks is an online paleo diet community that promotes a healthy lifestyles through primal methods. PaleoHacks started as a way for people share recipes, ideas and general opinions about the Paleolithic lifestyle. Now, whether it be the paleo diet, physical fitness or overall wellness, PaleoHacks has evolved into an online resource for healthy living. check us out on

– See more at: http://blog.paleohacks.com/the-different-types-of-hunger/#sthash.I02lz7Kp.dpuf


Leave a comment

The Different Types of Hunger

http://blog.paleohacks.com/the-different-types-of-hunger/

The Different Types of Hunger

different types of hunger

One major topic on the PaleoHacks site is about hunger and identifying the different types of hunger: “mind hunger,” “gurgling sensations,” “hunger pains,” “body wants fuel,”  “starvation mode,” “and hypoglycaemic hunger.” Here are some of the most popular types of hunger listed: hypoglycemia, empty stomach, and compulsion to eat.

So what exactly is hunger, anyway, and why do we experience it? Are there more types than those listed here?

Hunger

Hunger is the feeling you get when your body requires food. Appetite (or mind hunger), on the other hand, is the feeling of wanting to eat even when you are not hungry.

The sensation of hunger generally makes itself felt within a few hours of eating and most people find it unpleasant. Different people can experience hunger at different times according to their eating habits.

Biological Mechanisms of Hunger

Hormones

The hormones ghrelin and leptin fluctuate within your body to convince you to eat. When you eat, leptin is released and signals to your brain that you are full, or at least reduces your motivation to continue eating. After a few hours without food, those leptin levels drop and ghrelin is released, which brings back those feelings of hunger.

Other hormones like cholecystokinin (CKK) and insulin are released when you eat. These work to reduce hunger signals. Epinephrin and glucagon rise when you don’t eat and work to stimulate hunger.

Just before a meal, your glucose levels drop and your insulin rises.

Neural Signals from the Gastrointestinal Tract

Vagal nerve fibers can transmit signals between the GI tract and your brain. When you eat and your stomach is stretched, those stretch receptors tell your brain you are full and your hunger is reduced.

Nutrient Signals

Several nutrients send signals to your brain to indicate you are not hungry. These may include elevated amino acids, rising glucose levels, and fatty acids in the bloodstream.

Physical Sensations of Hunger

The different types of hunger may cause different sensations. When your stomach is empty, you may experience “growling” sensations, or minor cramping. You may have increased salivation or even “tight throat” feeling. This sensation doesn’t usually last long, about an hour, and then it will go away.

Appetite, or the desire to eat even when you’re not necessarily hungry, is all in your mind. This pesky issue can cause some problems with some people who either can’t recognize true hunger sensations, or choose to ignore them for the sake of eating that one last donut or cookie.

Hypoglycemic Hunger

When your body’s main fuel source is glucose, and you don’t eat enough carbs to produce glucose, your body might experience hypogylycemia. This is the condition where you have abnormally low levels of blood sugar.

This type of hunger is rare in Paleo eaters. Sure, when you first switch to a Paleo lifestyle after eating a lifetime of the Standard American Diet high in processed junk and sugar, you will probably have a few days or even a couple weeks where you will experience uneven energy and intense sugar cravings. You might experience anxiety or lightheadedness, the jitters, the shakes, brain fog, difficulty concentrating, extreme hunger, and energy crashes after eating and in the late afternoon.

The good news is, our bodies can make energy from carbs and from fat. If you have moved from a high-carb, low-fat diet to a lower- to moderate-carb, high protein, high fat diet, you will probably experience hypoglycemia for the first few days or week as your body adjusts. After that, your body will become accustomed to using a combination of fat and carbs (or just fat, if you follow a keto diet) for energy.

To make sure your body can produce energy from fat in an optimal manner, Chris Kresser suggests you ensure your nutrient levels are high, particularly ones responsible for this process, like carnitine and riboflavin.

Carnitine helps to move fatty acids into the mitochondria. If carnitine levels are low, fatty acids won’t be moved efficiently and your energy levels will drop. Genetic polymorphisms, a diet low in legumes or protein (source of lysine), or digestive impairment can all lead to a deficiency in carnitine.

Riboflavin is a main component of burning those fatty acids as fuel inside the mitochondria. Foods high in riboflavin are meat, green beans, asparagus, bananas, dairy products, fish, eggs, chard, okra, and persimmons. Things like dysbiosis or intestinal inflammation can affect your body’s ability to absorb riboflavin. Signs of a riboflavin deficiency include mouth ulcers, inflammation of the tongue and mouth, cracks at the corner of the mouth, and cracked and red lips.

Other nutrients that play a role in blood sugar regulation and energy production are chromium, biotin, magnesium, CoQ10, and choline.

Improve Your Body’s Fat-Burning Capacity

If you suspect your body is having a hard time metabolizing fat and you have issues with hypoglycemia, you might want to consider boosting your fat-burning nutrients as mentioned above, and improving your absorption of amino acids. Address any digestive issues you might have, and replace stomach enzymes and acids if they are low.

To regulate your blood sugar, experiment. Keep your carbs to fewer than 75 grams a day, eat more frequently (like every two to three hours), eat your breakfast with lots of protein within 30 minutes of waking up, eat a snack with fat and protein before you go to bed, and keep an eye on how you feel. If you need more carbs, then up your intake. Intermittent fasting may also be helpful.

Getting through that first adjustment period may be hard, but after that, you shouldn’t experience hypoglycemic reactions at all.

Water Hunger

Most people don’t realize it, but thirst often manifests as hunger. If you choose to eat when you feel this sensation but don’t drink, your body will continue to feel “hungry” even after you are past being satiated with food.

Practically every process in your body requires water, so ensure you are properly hydrated. Have some water every hour; different people have different water requirements, but generally, around one cup of water per hour should be sufficient. If it’s a very hot day, or you are hard at work doing something strenuous, are breastfeeding, or are on certain medications, you may need more. When you feel hungry next time, drink some water and see if that helps the sensation.

Head over to the PaleoHacks message boards to contribute to the topic of “Types of Hunger.”

avatar

PaleoHacks Team

PaleoHacks is an online paleo diet community that promotes a healthy lifestyles through primal methods. PaleoHacks started as a way for people share recipes, ideas and general opinions about the Paleolithic lifestyle. Now, whether it be the paleo diet, physical fitness or overall wellness, PaleoHacks has evolved into an online resource for healthy living. check us out on

– See more at: http://blog.paleohacks.com/the-different-types-of-hunger/#sthash.RfcF6VHc.dpuf